Thursday, September 13, 2018

What in Flotation do we have here!?!


August 15, 2018

WOW-WOW-WE-WOW everybody!

Unit N11 W4 southeast corner full of oxidized soil, ash, and charcoal.
Andrea here, and today I am going to get down and dirty on float sampling. But first, let me give you a little background on how our sample came to be. It was the 3rd of August 2018, and the day before the annual Fort St. Joseph Open House (and for the record our unit floor was extremely level at this point). Our south east corner was looking rather oxidized, ashy and full of charcoal. It was decided that our unit would be sampled. To begin, we measured and marked out a 45cm x 75cm square. We needed to fill a 10 liter bucket. We literally chunked up large pieces of sediment to prevent compromising any of the organic material that may be in the soil sample. Our purpose for taking the float sample was to hopefully gather remains of any organic material consumed or utilized by the inhabitants of Fort St. Joseph. So, we filled our bucket, but we may have forgotten to keep in mind we weren't going to go past 45cm below our datum point. As we cleaned up our South East corner it was clear we had gone too deep approximately 47cm below datum. And that's how we came to have our undulating (uneven/really bumpy) floor...
Undulating floor.


Austin teaches students how to use the flote-tech flotation machine.
Flash forward 2 weeks later, our hideous floor has been buried and we are out of the swamp and back in the lab at WMU. Today, a past field school student came in to show us how to use the flote-tech flotation system machine (there was no manual and the video was on VHS). This machine looks like a hotdog vender cart turned into a fancy wet screen operation.  It consists of a water reservoir, flotation tank and a water pump. The machine is split in half and the pump is used to move the 100-gallon water supply in a closed loop from the water reservoir into the floatation tank. One half of the machine houses the coarse-fraction screen and the other the fine-fraction screen. The machine gyrates and separates the organic material (fine-fraction) from the soil, it then floats to the surface while the heavier particles (coarse-fraction) sinks to the bottom. The floating material floats over the lip of the flotation tank and into the fine-fraction screen. As we began to process our sample the water movement was non-existent. We drained the tanks and began to disassemble the loop of PVC pipes for the pump system. The system was clogged! We blasted the slimy clay like silt from the pipes and every nook and cranny with the hose.  After reassembling the system, we started to process the sample again and boy did it make a difference!  We were cooking with gas and organics were floating to the surface with a purpose. After all of the fine-fraction organics have floated over and all of the soil has completely filtered out of the coarse-fraction screen we removed both screens. The fine-fraction screen is tied up to dry to await analysis (most likely under a microscope) and the coarse-fraction screen is set aside for further screening. When you pull out the course-fraction screen many artifacts are immediately visible for example lead shot, seed beads, and bone; these artifacts will be bagged and sorted like usual. After we finished processing all the samples we tore the machine down and flushed it out for the next guy! All in all, it was a great day and another archaeology skill in the playbook.

Austin and Gary cleaning the flotation machine. 
Fine-fraction and coarse-fraction samples after screening.



Diagram of the Flote-tech flotation system machine. 

Fine-fraction organics floating into the fine-fraction screen. 
Andrea and Gary fluffing the coarse-fraction ( I like to imagine he is a proud papa!).


Austin and Gary clean out the pipes.















Friday, August 10, 2018

I Really Dug Field School


Hey gang, it’s Gretchen again. As the 2018 Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Field School comes to a bittersweet end, I thought I would share with you what a privilege it has been to work with my peers, as well as, be a part of an actual archaeological excavation.

If I had to sum up what I learned in the field school, it would be patience. From troweling meticulously to living and working very closely with seventeen roommates, we all had to work on our patience. Even though we may have had our small differences throughout the last six weeks, we learned valuable skills about working with others and complimenting each other’s strengths and weaknesses. It was definitely easy to become very comfortable with one another very quickly while living so closely. We had to learn to deal with stress, while having such a routinely packed schedule. The best way to perfect the skills required for archaeology both in the field and with your colleagues is to be fully immersed in the field. We are all self-selected for this program and gave up a good six weeks of our lives for this intense learning experience. Dr. Nassaney has stressed deep listening this whole field season, teaching us to sit back and absorb what others are saying instead of thinking about what we’re going to say next all of the time, a valuable skill in the workplace. Archaeology is an extremely collaborative science on small and large scales. In the field, it is far more difficult to not dig holes in your unit than you would think. We have to carefully trowel across our unit floors keeping everything even within a centimeter at a time. When you think you’re being patient enough and taking your time, you’re not. A point I have brought up several times this season is that archaeology is extremely scientific but can feel very blue collar, which is quite humbling.

We have all had a great opportunity to be immersed in such a passionate, generous, dedicated community in Niles. We have free food up to our necks throughout the season as well as volunteers/donors of time and money in and out of the field. To see the effect our work has had on the community of Niles is truly amazing. Back to archaeology being a collaborative effort, we could not do this project without the support of you, Niles, and WMU, so for that I thank you all. Special shout out to our volunteer of the year, Gary, he’s the best ever. Public archaeology is so fulfilling; we know that by seeing everyone’s interest and contagious enthusiasm. The Open House was such an amazing experience even as exhausting as it was. Several participants were astonished by the amount of shared enthusiasm at the site. I almost wish the Open House would have lasted longer. Being surrounded by mutually passionate people makes for a happy, healthy, encouraging environment. People with all different skills sets were available at the Open House for people to learn about all different aspects of archaeology as well as history. It seems like everyone is intrigued when they hear the word archaeology, but for different reasons. There really is something for everyone in the field of archaeology, whether you just love dirt or you love lead seals ;). We all had many opportunities to create networks with the people of Niles, and professionals in different aspects of archaeology such as our zooarchaeologist Terry Martin, and field-school-veteran/ lead seal expert, Cathrine Davis. Having so many good resources, a growing network, and interested residents keeps us very motivated (so do all of the free cookies). 

I’ve never been to summer camp, but this is probably what it’s like. This week we are finishing up some mapping and soil records to wrap up and move out of Niles. My heart is full and I feel like I’ve found my people. We have all learned a lot about each other and the world of archaeology, forming lifelong friendships. We learned several field techniques, personal skills, and even each other’s home recipes. I have thoroughly enjoyed the field school and am extremely grateful for all of it. I want to thank every contributor to the project big or small, and I will see you all next field season in some way shape or form.



Thursday, August 9, 2018

"Speaking of Dirt..."

Sami Brown, the field school student speaker, at Media Day.

Hello everyone, it sure has been a while since I last wrote, my name again is Sami.  Due to the popular demand by the people, I have decided to write out my Media Day speech for your enjoyment.  I hope everyone has had a fun filled summer, because we sure did.  With out further ado. . .

“First of all, I would like to thank everyone for coming out today to support us.  Without the prolonged and continued support of individuals from the community we would not have the opportunity be standing here today.

My name is Samantha Brown, or Sami for short.  I was born and raised in a small farming town in Pennsylvania, called Munster.  Upon completing high school, I decided to enlist in the United States Air Force.  Through my 6-year military career I have lived in Texas, California and North Dakota.  I spent most of my military career as an Aerospace Service Medical Technician working on ambulances.  When it came time for me to separate and relocate my husband and I quickly agreed to move to his home state of Michigan, where I enrolled as a full-time student seeking a biology major.  A few semesters in, I care across an amazing opportunity to work for the Walt Disney Corporation at the Walt Disney Resort in Orlando, Florida as a character attendant.  So, my husband, two bonus kids, and myself left Michigan behind to become residents of the sunshine state for 3 ½ years.  Eventually the magic of Disney wore off, believe it or not, and we decided to return home to Michigan once again.  Having missed my time as a medic in the Air Force I decided to go for a degree change and pursue a major in biomedical sciences and a minor in chemistry at WMU.  So how exactly did the archaeology bug bite me well. . . 

My childhood home was originally an early 1900 saloon, where they would literally throw any garbage out the kitchen window or take it to a large hill on the western side of the property, about 10 yards from the establishment.  My father would spend many days with me and my brother digging threw this ruble.  We each got to shovel and dig in our own separate holes, all hoping to find something.  We mostly found glass bottles intact, Johnson and Johnson metal containers, and a few skeleton keys, all 20th century items or newer.  But the thrill of the find wasn’t the only exciting moment, you see my Dad would play this game with us.  With every object we found we would have to create a story to go along with it.  We had to give the object and owner, the owner a name, and take a stab at what the object was used for.  Being silly and young we usually picked names of loved ones and had very crazy and imaginative uses for the items.  For example, one time my brother found a blue glass bottle, he said it belonged to Bruce Wayne who used it to catch fireflies, so he had a light source all night long.  He was a major Batman fan.  I didn’t realize it then, but my Dad was preparing me in his own way as a junior archaeologist.

Flash forward to a college student sitting in a lecture hall taking on of her general education classes, Lost Worlds of Archeology.  It was the first class I ever took that I was actually excited about going to.  The professor was so excited and into the material it was very difficult not to catch the enthusiasm it was at this moment I decided to double minor in chemistry and anthropology.  With each passing anthropology course, I took I felt myself wanting to take more and learn as much as I could.  That’s when I found out about Intro to Archeology and ultimately the Fort St. Joseph Project.  Memories of me and my Dad spending many days digging in the dirt all began to resurface.  With each Intro to Archeology lecture Dr. Nassaney liked to challenge us to think outside of the box, utilize every source we could think of, and when we were out of ideas he challenged us to think of even more.  It was part of the reason I wanted to attend the Archaeology Field School this summer here in Niles.  The other reason stems from my heavy biology background, the want or need to tangibly touch or work with my subject.  What better way is there for an anthropologist to do this than conduct field work?  By getting the chance to leave the typical classroom setting and gain the experiences of a hands-on setting.  I honestly had no idea of what exactly I was getting myself into.  I knew for sure that we would not be doing Indiana Jones or Laura Croft type of work.  Instead, I was in for an experience of a lifetime.  Over the last five weeks I got the opportunity to unearth and touch history, like actually pick-up., examine, and think about an object, or artifact as we archeologists call them.  These artifacts actually belonged to someone at some period of time, and to be the first person to see or even feel them in 200+ years is an exhilarating feeling.  I can honestly say I will never forget the feeling I got when I picked-up and examined my first lead seal.  But, I quickly learned that archeology isn’t about filling museums with artifacts or even about finding artifacts in general, it goes so much deeper than that and let me tell you the amount of paperwork was surprising.  It’s about discovering history, giving voices to the voiceless, learning as much as you can about a topic only to find out there is always more to learn and ultimately, it’s about being able to work with others and forming bonds with those you work with.  Much like the family bonds we have grown to form with one another and will continue to form with others as we pursue our own archeological careers.”

Again, I want to take a few moments and thank everyone from the city of Niles, the WMU community, and all the surrounding areas for everything you do.  From the donations to the amount of time everyone donates to us, without you we would not be able to accomplish all that we do.  It really does take a village, and all of you are ours.  So here is to another 20 years, may we continue to strengthen and grow together, FSJ forever.

Tuesday, August 7, 2018

OPENing the Doors to my HOUSE Away from Home


Hello Fort St. Joseph community! This is Melanie writing to you all about the archaeological event from last weekend. Open House weekend is the culmination of the Fort St. Joseph archaeologists’ summer work, and this year we were all so excited to share our findings with the public. After a few weeks of working and living together, learning about archaeology and the history of the fur trade in Michigan, we acquired new knowledge and an enthusiasm about the project. Being able to interact with the public and inform them about our endeavors delving into the past was a unique and incredible experience. For this year’s Open House, students and staff organized a variety of activities in order to present our discoveries to the community in a fun and educational way. From pit tours to children’s activities to artifact cases, the Fort St. Joseph archaeologists, along with a few dozen historical interpreters, brought the eighteenth century fort to life once again.
FSJAP student Melanie rocking her 2018 Field Season Shirt and prepping for pit tours.

Every day in the field, students practiced explaining their units to the rest of the group and any guests visiting the site. Along with communicating new and important information, this allowed us to practice how to explain archaeology to those who do not know anything about it. Over the course of the last few weeks, we have had many visitors who came to the site and listened to our interpretations of what we have been finding. The local Pokagon Band of the Potawatomi brought their youth to the site, and our summer campers also participated in pit tours during their time working with us. Getting accustomed to talking in front of a group of curious people and explaining our newly acquired knowledge of the history of Fort St. Joseph increased our confidence and our eagerness of sharing historical information. During Open House weekend, we had continuous pit tours throughout the day where students presented information about their assigned unit to any interested guests. We utilized our summer’s worth of new information, as well as interpretive maps, to piece together a picture of the fort for the public and future archaeologists.

Historical reenactor and all around awesome ally to the FSJAP, Lynn!
One of the most exciting parts about the Open House was how interested the community was this year about the Project. There were many in-depth questions that guests asked us during the Open House at every station. One of the children’s activities, bead bartering, encouraged the kids visiting the site to ask questions to students, staff, and reenactors. We allowed young children to participate first hand in learning archaeological activities to introduce them to interpreting the past. I was able to cement my newly acquired knowledge by answering questions, and I even learned new facts about the fort from inquiring guests.

The historical reenactors also played a major role during the Open House by teaching us all about eighteenth century life. I was able to speak with quite a few of them, and they were happy to explain the activities that they were doing. One of the ladies was spinning thread and explaining the development of the various technologies that were used in the past. Another reenactor was a black smith, and he told me about the technologies that he uses to work an iron object. Free canoe rides were also available for the public during the Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Open House. The rides were led by a reenactor who used chants that the French fur traders of the eighteenth century would have used while paddling the St. Joseph River. From dancers to priests, the historical interpreters really made the past tangible to us living now in the twenty-first century.
The 18th-century partners with the 21st century for dancing lessons.
With the help of our various supporters, the staff and the field school students were able to successfully teach nearly nine hundred people about the archaeology of Fort St. Joseph. All of us put in a lot of time and effort over the past few weeks in order to host an educational and interactive Open House for the people of Niles. We enjoyed seeing the community as excited about the past as we are, even though the heat was almost unbearable. Each year, the Open House is where all of our work comes together—from previous field seasons and the most recent—and we are able to pass on our enthusiasm to the public. Together our understanding of the fur trade and life at Fort St. Joseph gets deeper with every passing year. Over the past twenty years, there have been many questions that we have been able to answer, and many more questions that arise from these new answers. There is still a lot of work to do, and a lot more information to learn, and we look forward to continuing our research of the site and sharing that knowledge with all of you.

A Wonderful Weekend

The 2018 field crew enjoying a ride
 in a birchbark canoe.



Hello Fort followers, it’s Meghan! After a wonderful weekend on the floodplain I am back with an update of the Open House!

Overall, I would say the Open House was a huge success even with the intense heat. We had just about 800 attendees in the 90+ degree weather. Throughout the weekend attendees could enjoy eight wet screening demonstrations; six colonial dances; eight historical walking tours; four French sing-alongs; multiple living history demonstrations; multiple discussions from Dr. Michael Nassaney and Cathrine Davis, MA; and FREE canoe rides! Also, the staff and students all had a wonderful time discussing the excavated units, our findings from this field season and our “ghost structure”.

As attendees walked down reenactor alley it was as though they were transported to the eighteenth century. The reenactors were demonstrating colonial baking and cooking; eighteenth century fishing; colonial dancing and music; blacksmithing; coopering; quill writing; and Jesuit priest and voyageur life! Cathrine Davis, our guest speaker, even took some time to demonstrate laundering. As guests continued to walk down towards the site they were greeted by Dr. Terry Martin and Fernwood Nature Preserve. Dr. Terry Martin, the zooarchaeologist for the Project, was discussing animal identification and had an array of animal remains displayed. Farther down the site, our “Technology Then and Now” banners were exhibited along with our artifact cases. This Open House we had a special artifact case completely dedicated to lead seals, due to the larger quantity of lead seals we have recovered this field season!

Open House guests observing
a reenactor use a spinning wheel. 

The Open House is the Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project’s opportunity to share our findings with the public and we are more than happy to invite the public into our world. As a long-term, multidisciplinary, community-based project, it is one of our major goals to have the public not only visit but become engaged and involved in our research. For example, the construction of our “ghost structure” would not have been possible without the help and support of the community.

Thank you so much for a successful weekend! We look forward to seeing you all at the 2019 Open House!
Meghan

Friday, August 3, 2018

Talking With A FEMA Archaeologist


Hi everybody, my name is Cameron Youngs and I am a field student here at the Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project, and a student at Western Michigan University. This is my fourth week excavating here in Niles, Michigan, and I am having the experience of a lifetime. I have met many wonderful people, I have ate a lot of good food, but most importantly I have learned a lot about Fort St. Joseph and working in the field. Each day has been a new adventure, and by the time Friday comes along I don’t want to go home. Last week we had a guest who came to visit us at the Stables and gave a lecture at the library. His name is Brock, and he was a former field student here at the Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project.

Brock told us all about his career working as an archaeologist, and how he is currently employed as a FEMA archaeologist working in New York. FEMA archaeologists are responsible for making sure a particular location does not have any archaeological sites before FEMA builds an emergency structure. Since FEMA is a federally funded agency, they are required by law to comply to the National Historic Preservation Act before a structure is built. If there is historic or archaeological significance present, they either have to excavate or advise to change the location of their emergency structure. I thought this was very interesting, and I had no idea such a career even existed! Also, I did not know that FEMA was even required to build around archaeological sites under the National Historic Preservation Act. To me it sounded like a very fulfilling career to work as an archaeologist while contributing to disaster relief.

Brock Giordano at the
Niles District Library last Wednesday. 
At the lecture Brock talked about his work at the Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project as a graduate student at Western Michigan University. He talked about the exchange of goods between the French and the Native Americans, but more specifically he focused on the concept of repurposing trade goods in a way that was completely unintended by the item’s original manufacturer. His focus was on tinkling cones that Native Americans would construct out of brass or copper, which they used to adorn their clothing. Tinkling cones are constructed out of scrap metal, usually from worn out brass kettles traded to them from the French. This metal was cut from the kettles, and then they were bent into a conical shape. Native Americans were the originators of crafters of tinkling cones, but we are not exactly sure if blacksmiths began to craft them too. Tinkling cones have been found in the archaeological record at Fort St. Joseph. I haven’t found any yet, but I would be very stoked if I did. (After Cam finished this blog he recovered a tinkling cone in his unit. (Edit: Meghan Williams)).
Tinkling cone found in Cam's unit.
After the lecture I asked Brock some questions about his career, and some advice for a budding archaeologist. He did not hesitate to tell me about his experiences, and what jobs I should expect to find with an undergrad in archaeology. He told me that I could find lots of work traveling around the United States through Cultural Resource Management. Cultural Resource Management or CRM, operates under a similar process as FEMA archaeologists. When a large federally funded structure or roadway is being built, CRM archaeologists must make sure that there are not any archaeological sites in the area before the structure is built. This is really exciting for me because it gives me an opportunity to travel, and work with artifacts. He told me that most undergrads do this kind of work in their twenties, and it is a good way to get familiar with working in the field. I look forward to my future of working and traveling across the United States as an archaeologist. Working at Fort St. Joseph has given me the opportunity to learn some of these field skills, and I am grateful for this opportunity. I also want to thank Brock for speaking with us, and everyone else during field school who has helped me navigate a future in archaeology.


Thursday, August 2, 2018

It’s a bird! No, it’s a plane! No, it’s the Fort St. Joseph archaeologists at the Air Zoo!


Hello Buddies! Its Raegan Delmonico back again with another archaeology and kids camp crossover blog! This past Thursday, Meghan, one of our public outreach coordinators, and I had the opportunity to go and present to a middle school camp that took place at the Air Zoo. Working with kids is always something I have enjoyed doing and having another chance to get kids involved in archaeology was great.
Teaching the Air Zoo campers 
archaeological techniques.
We arrived at the Air Zoo and went straight to the classroom. The kids were all between the ages of 11 and 13. They were a really energetic group and were excited to learn. We started off by doing some archaeology and paleontology flash cards with them and seeing how much they knew about archaeology. Most of them had a pretty good grip on the difference between archaeology and paleontology already! We followed up by doing an “other people’s garbage” activity and did some inferences based on what objects were in a bag. One bag contained a few coffee cups and some fast food wrappers, and the kids were able to hypothesize that the items probably belonged to a busy person who was running short on sleep. In the second bag there was a box of crayons, a receipt to a toy store, a jar of baby food, and an eraser head. They guessed that this was a person who lived a completely different lifestyle than the person who produced the items for the first bag. They also anticipated that this person probably had two kids that were different ages.

            Next, we showed off the artifact cases which highlighted some of our amazing finds from our units at Fort St. Joseph this past year. The campers were full of great questions about the artifacts and where we found them! They were very interested in the processes and methods used while excavating. Later in the morning we were able to go outside with them and do some mock excavating in a kiddy pool. The campers mapped out their units and carefully troweled away the soil. They took measurements from their mock datum lines and wet screened all of their sediment. They found “artifacts” that had been hidden by their camp counselor, Katie. It was a great hands-on activity for the kids to practice actual excavation techniques without visiting an excavation site.

The students and campers use
 trowels just like this everyday.



            Visiting the Air Zoo was a blast! Sharing my passion for archaeology with anyone, especially kids is so exciting. The campers were a ton of fun to work with and were pumped to hear more about the archaeology at Fort St. Joseph. It was a great opportunity to teach more people about the excitement and importance of archaeology. Thank you so much to the Air Zoo for the chance to present to some of your summer campers! We hope to come back soon!